The first questions every stranger asks as his steamer rounds Seraglio Point from the Mormora or descends the Bosphorus from the Black Sea are: “Where is Sancta Sophia?” “Which is Sancta Sophia?” To catch the earliest possible glimpse of its outline the eye of every traveler is strained… . In after years, in the quiet of the stranger’s home, it is the colossal form of Sancta Sophia which stands out most distinct on the canvas of Constantinople memories. (National Geographic, May 1915)
The beautiful interior tiling of the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmed Mosque), which shares the peak of the first of Istanbul’s famous seven hills, draws the western tourists, but to my mind, Hagia Sophia is even more impressive. It’s a place with a colorful history and special significance as Turkey’s first mosque (and the model for many others) and a genuine world landmark.
And it is old. Very old. It’s about 1,200 years older than the Blue Mosque, 1,100 years older than St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, 700 years older than Westminster Abbey, about 600 years older than Notre Dame de Paris, and at least 400 years older than the famous pyramid of El Castillo of Chichen Itza. But Hagia Sophia is not some ancient, abandoned ruin–it’s a true architectural marvel. During its 1,500 years, it was a Christian cathedral for almost 1,000 years, a Muslim mosque for almost 500, and a public museum for nearly 80.
From the moment you pass through the massive Imperial Door, which was, as its name suggests, once reserved for the exclusive use of Byzantine emperors, you realize that you’re somewhere quite special. A massive domed ceiling seems to float a hundred feet above the ground held aloft by barely-there supports. Large metal frames, each with dozens of lights, are suspended from the dome to within about 10 feet of the floor. Eight massive, wooden circular shield of black and gold hang from the corners, each inscribed with the name of an early Muslim religious leader.
It is known in Greek as Hagia Sophia, in Turkish as Aya Sofia, and sometimes as Haghia Sophia or Sancta Sophia or Aya Sofya. All translate roughly to “divine wisdom.”
Construction as The Hagia Sophia Basilica
In terms of important contributions to the world’s great buildings, Rome’s Emperor Constantine the Great didn’t do too badly at all. Having led the Roman Empire to Christianity, he commissioned two of the world’s great churches. Within one busy year, 326 AD, he ordered the construction of St Peter’s Basilica in Rome and Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Neither version of the building that stands now dates quite that far back, but Hagia Sophia comes closest–by about 1,000 years.
The site upon which Hagia Sophia now stands was once the site of a pagan temple. In 326, with Constantine himself presiding over the ceremony, the foundation stone was laid and the name given for what eventually became one of Christianity’s greatest monuments.
The first, more modest version of Hagia Sophia was destroyed by fire in 532. Not wanting for ambition, the new Byzantine emperor, Justinian, decided that rather than simply recreate the original, he would commission something far more expansive. Legend has it that the cathedral’s impressive centerpiece, its dome, was inspired by a visit to Emperor Justinian in a dream by an angel. The dome would be its defining marvel, would be a dome higher and wider than any to come before it, and held aloft with a minimum of support so as to create the illusion of floating. The rest of the building would play a supporting role–literally and figuratively–for the dome, rather than the other way around as was the convention.
To make his vision a reality, Justinian put out a call throughout the empire for contributions. From the city’s population, estimated to have been about half a million at the time–about ten times what it would be 900 years later–he created a workforce of 5,000, split into two competing teams, each operating on a side of the building.1
Cathedrals typically take a long time to build. Notre Dame de Paris took about 80 years, St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome about 120 years, and St. Paul’s in London a comparatively brisk 35 years. Impressively, Hagia Sophia was completed within 6 years.
The result was an architectural marvel. Justinian’s historian Procopius described the unique effect of the dome: “It abounds in sunlight and in the reflection of the sun’s ray from the marble. Indeed, one might say that its interior is not illuminated from without by the sun, but that the radiance comes into being within it.”2
Conversion to Aya Sofia Mosque
For almost a thousand years, with Constantinople the capital of the Byzantine empire, Hagia Sophia was one of the great centers of Christianity. When the city was sacked in 1204 by Latin invaders in the Fourth Crusade, an unknown amount of Hagia Sophia’s relics and decorations were looted or destroyed. The Latin occupation was short-lived; two years later, Byzantine rule was restored. For another two and a half centuries, Hagia Sophia remained the architectural jewel of the Christian Byzantine empire. That all changed when the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, which had repelled so many would-be invaders for a thousand years, finally fell permanently.
The 21-year-old Sultan Mehmet II led his army through the historic gates of Constantinople on May 29, 1453, after laying siege to the city for nearly two months and after two years of planning. While his army pillaged their way through the city for the customary three days of post-conquest looting, Mehmet proceeded directly to Hagia Sophia. As historian John Freely describes the visit:
Before Mehmet entered the building he dismounted and fell to his knees, pouring a handful of earth over his turban in a gesture of humility, since Haghia Sophia was as revered in Islam as it was in Christianity.1
Mehmet then ordered the building to be converted to a mosque and given the Turkish name Aya Sofya Camii Kabir. That required the construction of wooden minaret from which the müezzin would give the call to prayer. Inside, a minbar, or pulpit, was added for the imam to lead prayers, and a mihrab added to denote the direction of mecca. Three days after Constantinople fell, Mehmet II attended the first noon prayer in Hagia Sophia on Friday, 1 June 1453.3
In time, other modifications were made. The temporary wooden minaret was eventually replaced with four made of stone (Sultan Ahmed Mosque has five). In accordance with Muslim custom that prohibits the representation of humans, two large mosaic seraphim depicting angels adorning the side of the dome were plastered over; it’s only in the past few years that they have been uncovered and restored along with several other intricate mosaics.3
Conversion to a Public Museum
As one small part of his effort to create a secular Turkish state by disentangling religion from the nation’s government, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (usually just known as Ataturk), led the creation of special legislation to convert Hagia Sophia into a public museum.4 The mosque was closed to the public in 1931 and reopened as a museum four years later.
Since then it has brought in thousands of tourists a day, generating an impressive revenue stream from the entrance fees. Campaigners for Aya Sofia’s restoration have long argued that far too little of the profits from those fees is being funneled back into restoration efforts to clean the soot-caked walls, uncover plastered over mosaics, and buttress the foundations to protect against further damage from earth tremors.
Somewhat miraculously, it has mostly withstood the many earthquakes that have destroyed much of the rest of the city at various times. And while it hasn’t emerged entirely unscathed, the damage has, for the most part, been superficial.
And Back to a Mosque
In July 2020, a Turkish court revoked Hagia Sophia’s status as a museum. Minutes later, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan signed a decree that opened the way for Hagia Sophia to again become a mosque.
Photos of Hagia Sophia
What to Know Before You Go
- Hagia Sophia has been converted again, from a museum to an active mosque. So the visitation rules have changed and are in line with those for visiting the Blue Mosque. This is the updated guidance provided on the mosque’s official website:
All visitors, Muslims and non-Muslims are allowed to enter Hagia Sophia Mosque. Visitors should remove their shoes before stepping onto the mosque’s carpets. Avoid visiting Hagia Sophia Mosque at prayer times (five times a day), especially noon praying on Fridays. Women should wear a head covering when entering to the Hagia Sophia. Headscarves are available at the Hagia Sophia Mosque entrance without a fee. Photography is allowed, however do not take pictures of people who are in the mosque to pray. Stay silent during your visit, don’t run and stand in front of anyone praying. There is no entrance fee to visit Hagia Sophia Mosque, but donations are welcome.
- The Tombs of the Sultans is part of Hagia Sophia but has a separate entrance around the side of the complex. You can find more information here.
- Hagia Sophia’s official website
Want to Read More About Istanbul?
Istanbul is a city of extraordinary depth and history. If you’re looking to dive deeper, here are some books worth a look. (Some are also available as audiobooks—great for a long flight or train ride.)
Istanbul: Memories and the City, by Orhan Pamuk
In this memoir, the Nobel Prize-winning Turkish author reflects on his childhood and youth in Istanbul, offering a rich portrayal of the city’s history, culture, and ever-changing landscape.
The Innocents Abroad, by Mark Twain
This classic travelogue follows Mark Twain as he journeys through Europe and the Holy Land, including a visit to Istanbul, which he captures with his trademark wit and humor.
Strolling Through Istanbul: The Classic Guide to the City, by Hilary Sumner-Boyd and John Freely
This comprehensive guide and travelogue takes readers on a historical and cultural journey through Istanbul, detailing its most famous landmarks and hidden gems.
- Sumner-Boyd, Hilary (Author)
- English (Publication Language)
The Bridge on the Drina, by Ivo Andrić
This historical novel, by a winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, is set in the Ottoman Empire. It tells the story of the construction of the famous Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge in Višegrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the lives of the people who lived around it. While not set in Istanbul specifically, it offers a window into the wider region’s history and Ottoman influence.
A Fez of the Heart: Travels Around Turkey in Search of a Hat, by Jeremy Seal
This travelogue follows the author’s journey through Turkey, including a visit to Istanbul, as he explores the country’s history, culture, and politics, all while searching for the once-iconic fez hat.
- Seal, Jeremy (Author)
- English (Publication Language)
The Birds Have Also Gone, by Yashar Kemal
In this novel, set in Istanbul, the author tells the story of three boys who capture and sell pigeons in the city, offering a unique perspective on the city’s rapidly changing landscape and the challenges faced by its inhabitants.
The Towers of Trebizond, by Rose Macaulay
This satirical travelogue (i.e., a novel) follows the narrator as she embarks on an eccentric journey to Istanbul and the ancient city of Trebizond, exploring themes of love, religion, and the clash of cultures.
- Macaulay, Rose (Author)
- English (Publication Language)
- John Freely, The Grand Turk: Sultan Mehmet II – Conqueror of Constantinople and Master of an Empire, (New York: Overlook, 2009).
- Quoted in Pieter Sijpkes, “Monument to the Best in Human Spirit; Hagia Sophia has Survived Ravages of Time and Crumbling of Empires,” The Gazette, (Montreal), 24 December 1993, p.13.
- Suzan Fraser, “Istanbul’s Haghia Sophia: Angel’s Face Uncovered,” Associated Press, 24 July 2009.
- Marvine Howe, “Sacred and Secular: Turkish Dilemma,” New York Times, 31 August 1980, p.3.
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Travel Advice for Turkey (Turkiye)
You can find the latest U.S. Department of State travel advisories and information for Turkey (Turkiye) (such as entry visa requirements and vaccination requirements) here.
The British and Australian governments offer their own country-specific travel information. You can find the British Government's travel advice for Turkey (Turkiye) here and the Australian Government's here.
Health & Vaccinations
The CDC makes country-specific recommendations for vaccinations and health for travelers. You can find their latest information for Turkey (Turkiye) here.
General Information on Turkey (Turkiye)
The CIA's World Factbook contains a lot of good factual information Turkey (Turkiye) and is updated frequently.
- Official Name: Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)
- Location: Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (the Anatolian Peninsula), bordered by eight countries: Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to the south
- Coastline: Mediterranean Sea to the south, Aegean Sea to the west, and Black Sea to the north
- Capital: Ankara
- Largest City: Istanbul
- Population (2021 estimate): 85 million
- Ethnic Groups: Predominantly Turkish (70-75%), Kurds (19%), and other minorities (including Arabs, Circassians, and Laz)
- Official Language: Turkish
- Religions: Islam (predominantly Sunni), with small Christian and Jewish communities
- Government: Unitary parliamentary republic
- President (as of 2021): Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
- Prime Minister (as of 2021): Not applicable (the position was abolished in 2018)
- Area: 783,356 square kilometers (302,455 square miles)
- GDP (2021 estimate): $771 billion (nominal)
- GDP per capita (2021 estimate): $9,042 (nominal)
- Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY)
- Time Zone: GMT+3 (Turkey Time)
- Internet TLD: .tr
- Calling Code: +90
- Major Industries: Textiles, food processing, automotive, electronics, tourism, mining, steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
- Natural Resources: Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite, emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites, clay, hydropower, arable land
Turkey vs Turkiye vs Türkiye
The country's name has traditionally been Anglicized as Turkey, and that's how most of us have always known it. But the country's government has been pushing for adoption of the Turkish-language name, Türkiye. Since that doesn't always work well on Anglicized keyboards, you also often see it rendered as Turkiye. You can find more information on this here.